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The East Fifth Warhead is the first intercontinental missile warhead in our country. Compared with the previous model, the East Fifth Warhead has made new breakthroughs in terms of re-entering heat-prevention, attitude control, penetration prevention and nuclear warhead performance. First, warhead reentry into the atmosphere at a high speed, heat-resistant design is very complicated; Second, in order to confront the enemy anti-missile system, to design a number of new concepts involving penetration system; Third, in order to release multiple bait according to the program, In order to improve the accuracy of the reentry points, it is necessary to change the unmanned warhead into a controlled warhead with a posture control system and a slow-rotation system.

Intercontinental warhead development must first solve the problem of heat. In 1969 and 1971, there were two occasions during the flight tests of the East Third and East Fourth flight that the solution to the warhead heat problem was not properly resolved and the test failed. In contrast, the working conditions of ICBM warhead systems are much harsh. When intercontinental missile warhead reentry into the atmosphere, the Mach number is as high as 20-25. The intense compression of the air causes the pressure to rise sharply. At the same time, part of the kinetic energy is converted into heat energy and the temperature also increases rapidly. In order to solve the problem of aerodynamic heating during the design of the second generation of intercontinental missiles (such as the Titan II and R-36) by the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1960s, the big blunt cone warhead was used. The bow shock that this reentry can bring Take more heat flow, but slow down faster, is not conducive to penetration and improve accuracy.

The large blunt-ended cone warhead Mk6 used by the U.S. Titan II intercontinental missile, weighing 3.7 tons and measuring 3.1 meters in length, has an explosive equivalent of 9 Mt

East five bullet shape with a small blunt cone shape, this shape of the reentry slowing slow re-entry, is conducive to penetration and improve the accuracy of landing, but the more severe heating of the air. The East five warhead reentry, the end of the resident point pressure of 10MPa, stagnation near the stagnation point of up to 8000-10000 ℃, warhead cone surface temperature of 3000-3500 ℃. Such a serious reentry aerodynamic heating environment is a direct threat to the safety of warheads. The role of heat-proof material not only to ensure that the reentry warhead from burning, but also in the shape of the structure should maintain the original design of the aerodynamic shape, to ensure the accuracy of warhead placement; structure within the device should maintain a given temperature range, It will not affect the payload due to excessive heat input. If warhead thermal technology can not break through, the intercontinental missile can not be successfully developed.

Warhead aerodynamic heat needs to solve four problems: First, the thermal environment is predicted, highlighting the thermal environment and heat increment prediction of the local serious heating parts such as the end and the window; Second, the material and structural design, the focus is severe heating Site, such as the end of the development of high-performance heat-resistant materials, applications and reasonable material matching design and hot brittle materials thermal stress damage problems; Third, the design of heat-proof design and ground assessment and assessment tests; Fourth, ablation profile changes Prediction and assessment of aerodynamic characteristics, especially flight stability.

Weapon-specific protective oil (commonly known as "gun oil") is an important wipe and protective material for weaponry and equipment. It plays an irreplaceable and important role in maintaining the good technical state of weapons and equipment, preventing rusting, reducing wear and prolonging the service life. The military of all countries in the world has always attached great importance to the research and development of a special protective oil for weapons. The most typical is the Vietnam War, the United States military for the traditional anti-rust lubricating oil features a single, performance is not ideal, in 1971 proposed a "PD-48" procurement plan, the performance of the product made the following requirements : (1) It can effectively remove gunpowder residue, coke and other pollutants after it is fired; (2) It can provide reliable lubrication to weapon systems in various harsh conditions such as high temperature, low temperature and rain, and Not sticky, do not adsorb the dust; (3) in the high temperature, high humidity, high salt spray, cold or sea water immersion and other weather and use conditions, the weapon system provides good protection. As a result, a shift from a single protective function to a clean, lubricated and protective multi-functional shift was brought out of the weapon-specific protective oil. After nearly three years of laboratory development and testing of M16 rifles and various weapon systems such as artillery and armored vehicles, the U.S. military has given Weapons Clean Lubricating Oil for Protection (CLP) developed by BREAK-FREE Corporation Spoke highly of this product and in 1979 developed a military standard MIL-L-63460, which clearly states: CLP alternative weapons and equipment used on the original MIL-C-372 Barrel Cleaner (RBC), VV-L- (PL-S), MIL-L-46000 LSA, MIL-L-14107 Low Temperature Lubricant for LAW (LAW) and MIL-L-3150 Medium Quality Lubricant Rust lubricant (RBC) and other products. At present, CLP (NATO Product Code: S-758) has been widely used in more than 20 countries such as the United States, Australia, Finland, Canada and Belgium. Its product standards have also been developed to MIL-L-63460D.

In the late 1980s, our military carried out the tracking and research work on the clean and lubricated protective oil for weapons, and developed the specification for the clean and lubricated triplex oil (GJB 2378-95) according to MIL-L-63460D (1988). However, due to the limited technical level at that time, some samples developed by relevant domestic units still had some problems in actual use. Therefore, they have not yet been promoted and applied in the army.

1 Development of technical indicators

In order to improve the quality of the maintenance of weaponry and equipment, the author conducted a special study on the multi-purpose weapon-specific protective oil since 2001. The technical specifications of our products are based on our army's standard for clean, lubricated lubricants (GJB 2378-95). The main differences between the MIL-L-63460D (1988) [JP2] standard and the national standard are the reduction of propellant Corrosion resistance of the reaction product, low temperature fluidity of the residue and chemical reagent test strip interference test items. See Table 1 for details.

2 development process

2.1 screening base oil

Base oil is the basic component of anti-rust oil, physical and chemical properties of products have a decisive role. According to the tactical and technical index requirements and the intended use of the three lubricants for cleaning and lubricating weapons, the base oil should have excellent high and low temperature performance, high density and good compatibility with relevant organic solvents to meet the needs of the weapon system in - Normal shooting under various environmental conditions above 45 ℃, dispersion and suspension of solid lubricants in oil products and the normal play of the three functions of oil cleaning, lubrication and protection. Therefore, the research team collected and analyzed 8 kinds of mineral base oils and synthetic oils produced by 6 domestic refineries. After extensive screening tests, it was confirmed that 90% of the naphthenic mineral base oil and 10% of synthetic oil Components of the complex base oil. Part of the base oil screening test results in Table 2.

2.2 filter rust inhibitor

Oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors in rust-preventive oils are oil-soluble surface-active substances composed of two parts, polar and non-polar groups, which slow water, oxygen, etc. through directional adsorption at the oil-air interface and the oil- Corrosive media intrusion into the metal surface, which play a role in corrosion inhibition. At present, there are hundreds of oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors studied at home and abroad, but considering all factors such as its performance, manufacturing process, cost and raw material source, there are only a dozen of oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors commonly used in China. Based on a large number of studies on compatibility properties of various oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors, this study identified sulfonate, carboxylate and ester rust inhibitors and a small amount of surfactant with "super additive effect" The new composite rust inhibitor system, which is added in 45% by weight of transformer oil 10%, moist heat test can reach more than 1000 h, salt spray test can reach more than 60 h.

2.3 Development of lubricants

In order to increase the lubricating bearing capacity of lubricating oil, enhance the lubricating oil's aging, high temperature, wide temperature usability and performance under harsh conditions, usually add a certain amount of solid lubricant to lubricating oil. At present, the most used solid lubricants in lubricants are graphite, molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride and polytetrafluoroethylene. Since PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) is by far the lowest friction coefficient found in organic solid lubricants and is resistant to temperature, non-toxic, and at the same time easier to disperse and disperse in oil than inorganic solid lubricants, PTFE was chosen as the universal equipment Protective oil solid lubricating materials. However, the current domestic processing of PTFE powder, the use of mechanical cutting and grinding methods, the disadvantage is that large particle size (5 ~ 30 mm), irregular shape, and contains metal powder and other mechanical impurities, it is difficult to meet in the lubricating oil In the use of requirements. The PTFE aqueous emulsion, the water content of more than 60%, after adding oil will affect other oil properties, but also very unstable, unusable. Therefore, in this study, advanced processing techniques such as γ-ray irradiation and air jet milling were adopted, and the PTFE lubricant with particle size of 200-400 nm was prepared by molecular surface modification.

2.4 Development of powder residue cleaning agent

After the firing of artillery, the gunpowder will leave a layer of extremely strong gunpowder residue. If it is not cleared in time, it will seriously corrode the barrel and shorten the service life of the barrel. At present, the commonly used method is to use a lot of soapy water, alkaline solution, such as repeated cleaning and wiping, in addition to poor coke, and the use of a lot of conditions. In this research, based on the principle of "similar solubility parameter", JT gunpowder residue cleaning agent consisting of ethers, alcohols, esters and various surfactants was successfully developed on the basis of a large number of experiments. The test results show that the agent has strong penetrating power and has good effect on removing gunpowder residue in the bore and other pollutants adhering to the weapons and equipment. When adding 8% -15% (mass fraction) of the oil product, the removal rate of powder residue can reach more than 98%. The agent formulating and preparation technology has won the national invention patent (ZL 03143226.3).

2.5 to determine the recipe

On the basis of the above work, combined with the basic principles of protective oil group, to determine the three types of weapons cleaning and lubricating oil formulations. The composition (by mass fraction) is roughly as follows: 68.3% of base oil, 4% of viscosity index improver, 9% of composite anticorrosive agent, 1% of antioxidant, 2% of dispersant, 10% of JT detergent, %, Surfactant 0.2%.